Glossary

    Glossary

    Adjusted acquisition cost

    The acquisition cost of the securities less accumulated amortizations, plus interest accrued, but not net of any other valuation adjustments.

    Amortized cost

    The amortized cost of a financial asset is the amount at which it was measured at initial recognition minus principal repayments, plus or minus, as warranted, the cumulative amount taken to profit or loss using the effective interest rate method of any difference between the initial amount and the maturity amount, and minus any reduction for impairment or change in measured value.

    Associates

    Companies in which the Group has a significant influence, without having control. Significant influence is deemed to exist when the Group owns 20% or more of the voting rights of an investee directly or indirectly.

    Available-for-sale financial assets

    Available-for-sale (AFS) financial assets are debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity investments or as financial assets designated at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL) and equity instruments that are not subsidiaries, associates or jointly controlled entities and have not been designated as at FVTPL.

    Basic earnings per share

    Calculated by dividing “Profit attributable to Parent Company” by the weighted average number of shares outstanding throughout the year (i.e., excluding the average number of treasury shares held over the year).

    Business combination

    A business combination is a transaction, or any other event, through which a single entity obtains the control of one or more businesses.

    Cash flow hedges

    Those that hedge the exposure to variability in cash flows attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction and could effect profit or loss.

    Commissions and fees

    Income and expenses relating to commissions and similar fees are recognized in the consolidated income statement using criteria that vary according to their nature. The most significant income and expense items in this connection are:

    · Fees and commissions relating linked to financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss, which are recognized when collected.
    · Fees and commissions arising from transactions or services that are provided over a period of time, which are recognized over the life of these transactions or services.
    · Fees and commissions generated by a single act are accrued upon execution of that act.

    Consolidated statements of cash flows

    The indirect method has been used for the preparation of the consolidated statement of cash flows. This method starts from the entity’s consolidated profit and adjusts its amount for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments, and items of income or expense associated with cash flows classified as investment or finance. As well as cash, short-term, highly liquid investments subject to a low risk of changes in value, such as cash and deposits in central banks, are classified as cash and equivalents.When preparing these financial statements the following definitions have been used:
    · Cash flows: Inflows and outflows of cash and equivalents.
    · Operating activities: The typical activities of credit institutions and other activities that cannot be classified as investment or financing activities.
    · Investing activities: The acquisition, sale or other disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash and cash equivalents or in operating activities.
    · Financing activities: Activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the Group´s equity and of liabilities that do not form part of operating activities.

    Consolidated statements of changes in equity

    The consolidated statements of changes in equity reflect all the movements generated in each year in each of the headings of the consolidated equity, including those from transactions undertaken with shareholders when they act as such, and those due to changes in accounting criteria or corrections of errors, if any.

    The applicable regulations establish that certain categories of assets and liabilities are recognized at their fair value with a charge to equity. These charges, known as “Valuation adjustments” (see Note 31), are included in the Group’s total consolidated equity net of tax effect, which has been recognized as deferred tax assets or liabilities, as appropriate.

    Consolidated statements of recognized income and expenses

    The consolidated statements of recognized income and expenses reflect the income and expenses generated each year. Such statement distinguishes between income and expenses recognized in the consolidated income statements and “Other recognized income (expenses)” recognized directly in consolidated equity. “Other recognized income (expenses)” include the changes that have taken place in the year in the “Valuation adjustments” broken down by item.

    The sum of the changes to the heading “Valuation adjustments” of the consolidated total equity and the consolidated profit for the year comprise the “Total recognized income/expenses of the year”.

    Contingencies

    Current obligations of the entity arising as a result of past events whose existence depends on the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more future events independent of the will of the entity.

    Contingent liabilities

    Possible obligations of the entity that arise from past events and whose existence depends on the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more future events independent of the entity’s will and that could lead to the recognition of financial assets.

    Contingent risks

    Transactions through which the entity guarantees commitments assumed by third parties in respect of financial guarantees granted or other types of contracts.

    Control

    An investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. An investor controls an investee if and only if the investor has all the following:
    · Power ; An investor has power over an investee when the investor has existing rights that give it the current ability to direct the relevant activities, ie the activities that significantly affect the investee’s returns.
    · Returns; An investor is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee when the investor’s returns from its involvement have the potential to vary as a result of the investee’s performance. The investor’s returns can be only positive, only negative or both positive and negative.
    · Link between power and returns; An investor controls an investee if the investor not only has power over the investee and exposure or rights to variable returns from its involvement with the investee, but also has the ability to use its power to affect the investor’s returns from its involvement with the investee.

    Correlation risk

    Correlation risk is related to derivatives whose final value depends on the performance of more than one underlying asset (primarily, stock baskets) and indicates the existing variability in the correlations between each pair of assets.

    Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA)

    An adjustment to the valuation of OTC derivative contracts to reflect the creditworthiness of OTC derivative counterparties.

    Current service cost

    Current service cost is the increase in the present value of a defined benefit obligation resulting from employee service in the current period.

    Current tax assets

    Taxes recoverable over the next twelve months.

    Current tax liabilities

    Corporate income tax payable on taxable profit for the year and other taxes payable in the next twelve months.

    Debit Valuation Adjustment (DVA)

    An adjustment made by an entity to the valuation of OTC derivative liabilities to reflect within fair value the entity’s own credit risk.

    Debt obligations/certificates

    Obligations and other interest-bearing securities that create or evidence a debt on the part of their issuer, including debt securities issued for trading among an open group of investors, that accrue interest, implied or explicit, whose rate, fixed or benchmarked to other rates, is established contractually, and take the form of securities or book-entries, irrespective of the issuer.

    Deferred tax assets

    Taxes recoverable in future years, including loss carryforwards or tax credits for deductions and tax rebates pending application.

    Deferred tax liabilities

    Income taxes payable in subsequent years.

    Defined benefit plans

    Defined contribution plans are retirement benefit plans under which amounts to be paid as retirement benefits are determined by contributions to a fund together with investment earnings thereon. The employer’s obligations in respect of its employees current and prior years’ employment service are discharged by contributions to the fund.

    Defined contribution plans

    Post-employment obligation under which the entity, directly or indirectly via the plan, retains the contractual or implicit obligation to pay remuneration directly to employees when required or to pay additional amounts if the insurer, or other entity required to pay, does not cover all the benefits relating to the services rendered by the employees when insurance policies do not cover all of the corresponding post-employees benefits.

    Deposits from central banks

    Deposits of all classes, including loans and money market operations, received from the Bank of Spain and other central banks.

    Deposits from credit institutions

    Deposits of all classes, including loans and money market operations received, from credit entities.

    Deposits from customers

    Redeemable cash balances received by the entity, with the exception of debt certificates, money market operations through counterparties and subordinated liabilities, that are not received from either central banks or credit entities. This category also includes cash deposits and consignments received that can be readily withdrawn.

    Diluted earnings per share

    Calculated by using a method similar to that used to calculate basic earnings per share; the weighted average number of shares outstanding, and the profit attributable to the parent company, if appropriate, is adjusted to take into account the potential dilutive effect of certain financial instruments that could generate the issue of new Bank shares (share option commitments with employees, warrants on parent company shares, convertible debt instruments, etc.).

    Early retirements

    Employees that no longer render their services to the entity but which, without being legally retired, remain entitled to make economic claims on the entity until they formally retire.

    Economic capital

    Eligible capital for regulatory capital adequacy calculations.

    Economic profit

    This metric measures the part of attributable adjusted profit (attributable profit + adjustment for expected loss, net income and valuation) in excess of the cost of equity employed, and measures the profits generated in excess of market expectations of returns on equity capital. This is used at the management level; for annual public reporting; for incentives in some business areas; and in the Group’s value map.

    Effective interest rate

    Discount rate that exactly equals the value of a financial instrument with the cash flows estimated over the expected life of the instrument based on its contractual period as well as its anticipated amortization, but without taking the future losses of credit risk into consideration.

    Employee expenses

    All compensation accrued during the year in respect of personnel on the payroll, under permanent or temporary contracts, irrespective of their jobs or functions, irrespective of the concept, including the current costs of servicing pension plans, own share based compensation schemes and capitalized personnel expenses. Amounts reimbursed by the state Social Security or other welfare entities in respect of employee illness are deducted from personnel expenses.

    Equity

    The residual interest in an entity’s assets after deducting its liabilities. It includes owner or venturer contributions to the entity, at incorporation and subsequently, unless they meet the definition of liabilities, and accumulated net profits or losses, fair value adjustments affecting equity and, if warranted, minority interests.

    Equity instruments

    An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities.

    Equity method

    Is a method of accounting whereby the investment is initially recognised at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post-acquisition change in the investor’s share of the investee’s net assets. The investor’s profit or loss includes its share of the investee’s profit or loss and the investor’s other comprehensive income includes its share of the investee’s other comprehensive income.

    Exchange/translation differences

    Exchange differences (PyL): Includes the earnings obtained in currency trading and the differences arising on translating monetary items denominated in foreign currency to the functional currency. Exchange differences (valuation adjustments): those recorded due to the translation of the financial statements in foreign currency to the functional currency of the Group and others recorded against equity.

    Exposure at default

    EAD is the amount of risk exposure at the date of default by the counterparty.

    Fair value

    The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

    Fair value hedges

    Derivatives that hedge the exposure to changes in the fair value of assets and liabilities or firm commitments that have not be recognized, or of an identified portion of said assets, liabilities or firm commitments, attributable to a specific risk, provided it could affect the income statement.

    Fees

    Income and expenses relating to commissions and similar fees are recognized in the consolidated income statement using criteria that vary according to their nature. The most significant income and expense items in this connection are:

    · Fees and commissions relating linked to financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss, which are recognized when collected.
    · Fees and commissions arising from transactions or services that are provided over a period of time, which are recognized over the life of these transactions or services.
    · Fees and commissions generated by a single act are accrued upon execution of that act.

    Financial guarantees

    Contracts that require the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs when a specified debtor fails to make payment when due in accordance with the original or modified terms of a debt instrument, irrespective of its instrumentation. These guarantees may take the form of deposits, technical or financial guarantees, insurance contracts or credit derivatives.

    Financial instrument

    A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and to a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

    Financial liabilities at amortized cost

    Financial liabilities that do not meet the definition of financial liabilities designated at fair value through profit or loss and arise from the financial entities’ ordinary activities to capture funds, regardless of their instrumentation or maturity.

    Full consolidation method

    Method used for the consolidation of the accounts of the Group’s subsidiaries. The assets and liabilities of the Group entities are incorporated line-by-line on the consolidate balance sheets, after conciliation and the elimination in full of intragroup balances, including amounts payable and receivable.
    Group entity income statement income and expense headings are similarly combined line by line into the consolidated income statement, having made the following consolidation eliminations:

    · income and expenses in respect of intragroup transactions are eliminated in full.
    · profits and losses resulting from intragroup transactions are similarly eliminated. The carrying amount of the parent’s investment and the parent’s share of equity in each subsidiary are eliminated.

    Gains or losses on financial assets and liabilities, net

    This heading reflects fair value changes in financial instruments – except for changes attributable to accrued interest upon application of the interest rate method and asset impairment losses (net) recognized in the income statement – as well as gains or losses generated by their sale – except for gains or losses generated by the disposal of investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates an of securities classified as held to maturity.

    Goodwill

    Goodwill acquired in a business combination represents a payment made by the acquirer in anticipation of future economic benefits from assets that are not able to be individually identified and separately recognized.

    Hedges of net investments in foreign operations

    Foreign currency hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation.

    Hedging derivatives

    Derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an accounting hedge. The fair value or future cash flows of those derivatives is expected to offset the differences in the fair value or cash flows of the items hedged.

    Held for trading (assets and liabilities)

    Financial assets and liabilities acquired or incurred principally for the purpose of selling or repurchasing them in the near term with a view to profiting from variations in their prices or by exploiting existing differences between their bid and ask prices.

    This category also includes financial derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting, and in the case of borrowed securities, financial liabilities originated by the firm sale of financial assets acquired under repurchase agreements or received on loan (“short positions”).

    Held-to-maturity investments

    Held-to-maturity investments are financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturity that an entity has the positive intention and ability to hold to maturity.

    Impaired financial assets

    A financial asset is deemed impaired, and accordingly restated to fair value, when there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events that give rise to:

    1. A measurable decrease in the estimated future cash flows since the initial recognition of those assets in the case of debt instruments (loans and receivables and debt securities).
    2. A significant or prolonged drop in fair value below cost in the case of equity instruments

    Impaired/doubtful/non-performing portfolio

    Financial assets whose carrying amount is higher than their recoverable value, prompting the entity to recognize the corresponding impairment loss.

    Income from equity instruments

    Dividends and income on equity instruments collected or announced during the year corresponding to profits generated by investees after the ownership interest is acquired. Income is recognized gross, i.e., without deducting any withholdings made, if any.

    Insurance contracts linked to pensions

    The fair value of insurance contracts written to cover pension commitments.

    Inventories

    Assets, other than financial instruments, under production, construction or development, held for sale during the normal course of business, or to be consumed in the production process or during the rendering of services. Inventories include land and other properties held for sale at the real estate development business.

    Investment properties

    Investment property is property (land or a building—or part of a building—or both) held (by the owner or by the lessee under a finance lease) to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both, rather than for own use or sale in the ordinary course of business.

    Joint arrangement

    An arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.

    Joint control

    The contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

    Joint venture

    A joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. A joint venturer shall recognise its interest in a joint venture as an investment and shall account for that investment using the equity method in accordance with IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures.

    Leases

    A lease is an agreement whereby the lessor conveys to the lessee in return for a payment or series of payments the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time, a stream of cash flows that is essentially equivalent to the combination of principal and interest payments under a loan agreement.
    A lease is classified as a finance lease when it substantially transfers all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the asset forming the subject-matter of the contract.
    A lease will be classified as operating lease when it is not a financial lease.

    Liabilities associated with non-current assets held for sale

    The balance of liabilities directly associated with assets classified as non-current assets held for sale, including those recognized under liabilities in the entity’s balance sheet at the balance sheet date corresponding to discontinued operations.

    Liabilities under insurance contracts

    The technical reserves of direct insurance and inward reinsurance recorded by the consolidated entities to cover claims arising from insurance contracts in force at period-end.

    Loans and advances to customers

    Loans and receivables, irrespective of their type, granted to third parties that are not credit entities.

    Loans and receivables

    Financial instruments with determined or determinable cash flows and in which the entire payment made by the entity will be recovered, except for reasons attributable to the solvency of the debtor. This category includes both the investments from the typical lending activity (amounts of cash available and pending maturity by customers as a loan or deposits lent to other entities, and unlisted debt certificates), as well as debts contracted by the purchasers of goods, or users of services, that form part of the entity’s business. It also includes all finance lease arrangements in which the consolidated subsidiaries act as lessors.

    Loss given default (LGD)

    It is the estimate of the loss arising in the event of default. It depends mainly on the characteristics of the counterparty, and the valuation of the guarantees or collateral associated with the asset.

    Mortgage-covered bonds

    Financial asset or security created from mortgage loans and backed by the guarantee of the mortgage loan portfolio of the entity.

    Non-controlling interests

    The net amount of the profit or loss and net assets of a subsidiary attributable to associates outside the group (that is, the amount that is not owned, directly or indirectly, by the parent), including that amount in the corresponding part of the consolidated earnings for the period.

    Non-current assets held for sale

    A non-current asset or disposal group, whose carrying amount is expected to be realized through a sale transaction, rather than through continuing use, and which meets the following requirements:
    a)  it is immediately available for sale in its present condition at the balance sheet date, i.e. only normal procedures are required for the sale of the asset
    b)  the sale is considered highly probable.

    Non-monetary assets

    Assets and liabilities that do not provide any right to receive or deliver a determined or determinable amount of monetary units, such as tangible and intangible assets, goodwill and ordinary shares subordinate to all other classes of capital instruments.

    Non performing contingent risk

    The balance of non performing risks, whether for reasons of default by customers or for other reasons as detailed in section II of Annex IX of Bank of Spain Circular 04/2004, for contingent risks. This figure is shown gross: in other words, it is not adjusted for value corrections (loan loss reserves) made.

    Non Performing Loans (NPL)

    The balance of non performing risks, whether for reasons of default by customers or for other reasons, for exposures on balance loans to customers. This figure is shown gross: in other words, it is not adjusted for value corrections (loan loss reserves) made.

    NPA Coveraged ratio

    Impairment allowances (generic, specific and country risk allowance) as a percentage of the non performing assets (the sum of impaired loans and advances to customers and impaired contingent liabilities to customers).

    NPA ratio

    Represents the sum of impaired loans and advances to customers and impaired contingent liabilities to customers divided by the sum of Loans and advances to customers and Contingent liabilities to customers.

    Other equity instruments

    This heading reflects the increase in equity resulting from various forms of owner contributions, retained earnings, restatements of the financial statements and valuation adjustments.

    Other financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

    Instruments designated by the entity from the start at fair value with changes in profit or loss. Only the following can be included in the category: assets and liabilities that are deemed “hybrid financial assets and liabilities” and for which the fair value of the embedded derivatives cannot be reliably determined.
    These are financial assets managed jointly with “Liabilities under insurance contracts” valued at fair value, in combination with derivatives written with a view to significantly mitigating exposure to changes in these contracts’ fair value, or in combination with financial liabilities and derivatives designed to significantly reduce global exposure to interest rate risk.

    These headings also include customer loans and deposits effected via so-called unit-linked life insurance contracts, in which the policyholder assumes the investment risk.

    Own/treasury shares

    The amount of own equity instruments held by the entity.

    Past service cost

    It is the change in the present value of the defined benefit obligation for employee service in prior periods, resulting in the current period from the introduction of, or changes to, post-employment benefits or other long-term employee benefits.

    Post-employment benefits

    Retirement benefit plans are arrangements whereby an enterprise provides benefits for its employees on or after termination of service.

    Probability of default (PD)

    It is the probability of the counterparty failing to meet its principal and/or interest payment obligations. The PD is associated with the rating/scoring of each counterparty/transaction.

    Property, plant and equipment/tangible assets

    Buildings, land, fixtures, vehicles, computer equipment and other facilities owned by the entity or acquired under finance leases.

    Provision for credit losses

    Provisions recognized during the year, net of recoveries on amounts provisioned in prior years, with the exception of provisions for pensions and contributions to pension funds which constitute current or interest expense.

    Provisions

    Provisions include amounts recognized to cover the Group’s current obligations arising as a result of past events, certain in terms of nature but uncertain in terms of amount and/or cancellation date.

    Provisions for contingent exposures and commitments

    Provisions recorded to cover exposures arising as a result of transactions through which the entity guarantees commitments assumed by third parties in respect of financial guarantees granted or other types of contracts, and provisions for contingent commitments, i.e., irrevocable commitments which may arise upon recognition of financial assets.

    Provisions for pensions and similar obligation

    Constitutes all provisions recognized to cover retirement benefits, including commitments assumed vis-à-vis beneficiaries of early retirement and analogous schemes.

    Public-covered bonds

    Financial asset or security created from public loans and backed by the guarantee of the public debt portfolio of the entity.

    Refinanced Operation

    An operation which is totally or partially brought up to date with its payments as a result of a refinancing operation made by the entity itself or by another company in its group.

    Refinancing Operation

    An operation which, irrespective of the holder or guarantees involved, is granted or used for financial or legal reasons related to current or foreseeable financial difficulties that the holder(s) may have in settling one or more operations granted by the entity itself or by other companies in its group to the holder(s) or to another company or companies of its group, or through which such operations are totally or partially brought up to date with their payments, in order to enable the holders of the settled or refinanced operations to pay off their debt (principal and interest) because they are unable, or are expected to be unable, to meet the conditions in a timely and appropriate manner.

    Renegotiated Operation

    An operation whose financial conditions are modified when the borrower is not experiencing financial difficulties, and is not expected to experience them in the future, i.e. the conditions are modified for reasons other than restructuring.

    Renewal Operation

    An operation arranged to replace another one granted previously by the entity itself, when the borrower is not experiencing financial difficulties, and is not expected to experience them in the future, i.e. the operation is arranged for reasons other than refinancing.

    Reserves

    Accumulated net profits or losses recognized in the income statement in prior years and retained in equity upon distribution. Reserves also include the cumulative effect of adjustments recognized directly in equity as a result of costs in the issue or reduction of own equity instruments, sale of own equity instruments, actuarial gains on pension plans and the retroactive restatement of the financial statements due to changes in accounting policy and the correction of errors.

    Restructured Operation

    An operation whose financial conditions are modified for economic or legal reasons related to the holder’s (or holders’) current or foreseeable financial difficulties, in order to enable payment of the debt (principal and interest), because the holder is unable, or is expected to be unable, to meet those conditions in a timely and appropriate manner, even if such modification is provided for in the contract. In any event, the following are considered restructured operations: operations in which a haircut is made or assets are received in order to reduce the debt, or in which their conditions are modified in order to extend their maturity, change the amortization table in order to reduce the amount of the installments in the short term or reduce their frequency, or to establish or extend the grace period for the principal, the interest or both; except when it can be proved that the conditions are modified for reasons other than the financial difficulties of the holders and, are similar to those applied on the market on the modification date for operations granted to customers with a similar risk profile.

    Securitization fund

    A fund that is configured as a separate equity and administered by a management company. An entity that would like funding sells certain assets to the securitization fund, which, in turn, issues securities backed by said assets.

    Separate vehicle

    A separately identifiable financial structure, including separate legal entities or entities recognised by statute, regardless of whether those entities have a legal personality.

    Share premium

    The amount paid in by owners for issued equity at a premium to the shares’ nominal value.

    Short positions

    Financial liabilities arising as a result of the final sale of financial assets acquired under repurchase agreements or received on loan.

    Significant influence

    Is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control of those policies. If an entity holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), 20 per cent or more of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the entity has significant influence, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. Conversely, if the entity holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), less than 20 per cent of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the entity does not have significant influence, unless such influence can be clearly demonstrated. A substantial or majority ownership by another investor does not necessarily preclude an entity from having significant influence.

    The existence of significant influence by an entity is usually evidenced in one or more of the following ways:
    representation on the board of directors or equivalent governing body of the investee;
    participation in policy-making processes, including participation in decisions about dividends or other distributions;
    material transactions between the entity and its investee;
    interchange of managerial personnel; or
    provision of essential technical information.

    Stockholders funds

    Contributions by stockholders, accumulated earnings recognized in the income statement and the equity components of compound financial instruments.

    Structured credit products

    Structured credit products

    Structured Entities

    A structured entity is an entity that has been designed so that voting or similar rights are not the dominant factor in deciding who controls the entity, such as when any voting rights relate to administrative tasks only and the relevant activities are directed by means of contractual arrangements. A structured entity often has some or all of the following features or attributes:

    restricted activities.
    a narrow and well-defined objective, such as to effect a tax-efficient lease, carry out research and development activities, provide a source of capital or funding to an entity or provide investment opportunities for investors y passing on risks and rewards associated with the assets of the structured entity to investors.
    insufficient equity to permit the structured entity to finance its activities without subordinated financial support.
    financing in the form of multiple contractually linked instruments to investors that create concentrations of credit or other risks (tranches)

    Subordinated liabilities

    Financing received, regardless of its instrumentation, which ranks after the common creditors in the event of a liquidation.

    Subsidiaries

    Companies which the Group has the power to control. Control is presumed to exist when the parent owns, directly or indirectly through subsidiaries, more than one half of an entity’s voting power, unless, exceptionally, it can be clearly demonstrated that ownership of more than one half of an entity’s voting rights does not constitute control of it. Control also exists when the parent owns half or less of the voting power of an entity when there is:
    an agreement that gives the parent the right to control the votes of other shareholders;
    power to govern the financial and operating policies of the entity under a statute or an agreement; power to appoint or remove the majority of the members of the board of directors or equivalent governing body and control of the entity is by that board or body.
    power to cast the majority of votes at meetings of the board of directors or equivalent governing body and control of the entity is by that board or body.

    Substandard risk

    All debt instruments and contingent risks which do not meet the criteria to be classified individually as non-performing or written-off, but show weaknesses that may entail for the entity the need to assume losses greater than the hedges for impairment of risks subject to special monitoring.

    Tax liabilities

    All tax related liabilities except for provisions for taxes.

    Total Shareholder Return (TSR)

    The total return of a stock to an investor (capital gain plus dividends).

    Trading derivatives

    The fair value in favor of the entity of derivatives not designated as accounting hedges.

    Unit-Link

    This is life insurance in which the policyholder assumes the risk. In these policies, the funds for the technical insurance provisions are invested in the name of and on behalf of the policyholder in shares of Collective Investment Institutions and other financial assets chosen by the policyholder, who bears the investment risk.

    Value at Risk (VaR)

    Value at Risk (VaR) is the basic variable for measuring and controlling the Group’s market risk. This risk metric estimates the maximum loss that may occur in a portfolio’s market positions for a particular time horizon and given confidence level
    VaR figures are estimated following two methodologies:
    VaR without smoothing, which awards equal weight to the daily information for the immediately preceding last two years. This is currently the official methodology for measuring market risks vis-à-vis limits compliance of the risk.
    VaR with smoothing, which weights more recent market information more heavily. This is a metric which supplements the previous one.
    VaR with smoothing adapts itself more swiftly to the changes in financial market conditions, whereas VaR without smoothing is, in general, a more stable metric that will tend to exceed VaR with smoothing when the markets show less volatile trends, while it will tend to be lower when they present upturns in uncertainty.

    There are no terms available

    Updated page 24 May 2017

    We use third-party and own cookies for improve our services and showing the users advertising related to your preferences through the analysis of your navigational habits. If you continue browsing, we assume that you accept its use. More info

    The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.

    Close